Još o brodogradnji – Bloomberg

autora/ice cronomy

Neki su vjerojatno već pročitali, ali ukoliko vam se neda tražiti evo cijelog članka ovdje. Bold je moje isticanje. Primjetite, bar ja mislim, da su prigovori i nerazumjevanje oko stanja i riješenja brodogradilišta uglavnom političke i društvene prirode. Ekonomsko objašnjenje pati i normalno da ljudi ne vide ništa dobroga u restrukturiranju; nitko od političara nije objasnio zašto je nužno i na duge staze dobro. Naravno, greška bi bila isticati samo ekonomsko objašnjenje, a ne društveno i političko. Društveni i politički aspekti reformi brodogradnje se moraju isticati i objasniti. Bojim se samo da je to sve o čemu se i diskutira, pogotovo u izborno vrijeme. Ekonomsko objašnjenje i rješenje, po principu efikasnosti, nije jedini cilj, ali bi trebao biti primarni cilj. U Hrvatskoj kao da ga i nema. (Vidi moj prošli post o brodogradnji za ekonomsku diskusiju.)

Stopa nezaposlenosti od 14.1 nije sasvim točna. Anketna stopa, kvalitetniji pokazatelj, je bila oko 11.2% za prvo tromjesečje. Registrirana stopa je negdje oko 13.8%. No, razmislimo li malo razumjeti ćemo da stvarna nezaposlenost jest veća i taj postotak nije napuhan; jer kad ubrojimo sve radnike koje rade u “zombi” državnima poduzećima i tako su samo umjetno zaposleni, uključujući i brodogradnju, vidimo da se radi o skrivenoj nezaposlenosti.

Croatia Abandons Marco Polo as EU Bid Roils Shipping Industry
By Manja Segrt

Nov. 19 (Bloomberg) — No industry is dearer to Croatians than shipbuilding.

The yards of Rijeka and other coastal cities produced cargo ships and destroyers that served the Austro-Hungarian Empire for four centuries. The yachts they built for Yugoslavian leader Josip Broz Tito carried celebrities from Winston Churchill to Elizabeth Taylor.

They may not survive the country’s bid to join the European Union.

Croatia’s government, seeking a new mandate in Nov. 25 parliamentary elections, is negotiating with the 27-member EU over reducing annual shipyard subsidies of 2.6 billion kuna ($517 million). At stake are thousands of jobs along the country’s Adriatic coast as Croatia seeks to follow Romania and Bulgaria as new members of the free-trade club.

“Shipbuilding here is a tradition dating back centuries, and it should be preserved,” said Djivo Basic, head curator of the Dubrovnik Maritime Museum. He noted that references to Croatia’s ships even appear in Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice.” “The EU’s demands are political more than economic.”

At the 3 Maj shipyard in Rijeka, workers whose families have produced boats for generations say they may be the last of the line. Ivan, an engineer who declined to give his last name or other personal details for fear his employer would disapprove, said he doesn’t know what else he would do.

`All His Life’

“They cannot close us,” he said at the dockyard entrance. “My grandfather worked here all his life. He started back in 1928 when Italians ran this yard. I’ve been here seven years and don’t see myself anywhere else.”

Croatia is the world’s sixth-largest shipbuilder behind South Korea, Japan, China, Germany and Taiwan, employing more than 11,000 people. Thousands more depend on the industry in the communities around the five main yards dotted along the craggy coastline, according to the Croatian Chamber of Economy.

“This industry feeds a lot of families,” said Andjelko Milardovic, head of the Political Science Research Center in Zagreb. “This is more of a social than a political question as the state needs to decide how to go on.”

The European Commission, the EU’s executive arm, said in a Nov. 6 progress report that Croatia needs to make “considerable efforts” to restructure the shipyards. The Croatian government must now respond with a detailed set of proposals to overhaul the industry and reduce state support. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development said in a Nov. 29, 2006, report that the yards were low in productivity and were too labor intensive.

Delaying a Decision

Prime Minister Ivo Sanader, whose Croatian Democratic Union party is tied with the Social Democratic Party in opinion polls before the elections, has put off any decision about the yards’ future until after the vote.

His party aims to make each shipyard able to generate a profit without state aid, according to Tomislav Mazal, spokesman for Deputy Prime Minister Damir Polancec. The Social Democrats have similar ideas, increasing the likelihood of layoffs in a country with an unemployment rate of 14.1 percent, higher than any nation in the EU.

Labor unions support some changes, though they have warned that whichever government emerges from the elections needs to avoid overly stringent cuts.

Compensated and Retrained

“Restructuring must take place in human resources, technology, organization and market sectors,” said Ivo Marjanovic, president of the Metal Workers’ Union, who also wants fired workers to be compensated and retrained. “The process will be over in two years. This takes time and is difficult.”

Shipbuilding in Croatia, birthplace of explorer Marco Polo, began in the 13th century. The city of Dubrovnik, an independent state until the early 19th century, had a fleet that traveled as far as Germany and England, and had a trading colony in Goa, India.

The country was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1527 and the end of World War I. Its ports repaired and built ships for central Europe’s most powerful regime, covering modern Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic and part of Poland.

During Croatia’s years as a part of the Yugoslav federation, Tito’s shipboard guests, in addition to Churchill and Taylor, included Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, India’s Mahatma Gandhi and actress Sophia Loren.

Sold Abroad

Almost all the vessels made in Croatia are sold abroad, with shipbuilding representing around 12 percent of exports, according to the Croatian Chamber of Economy.

The five main yards have lost money for more than a decade. State subsidies to all industries increased last year to 3.4 percent of the nation’s gross domestic product from 2.3 percent in 2005. EU member states spend less than 1 percent of GDP on such payments on average, according to the International Monetary Fund.

A worker named Neno, who also wouldn’t give his full name, said he may have to relocate if he loses his job in a nation where the net average monthly wage is $973.

“People say joining the EU is good,” he said. “But if that means I will lose my job and other people will too, what’s good about it for me?

To contact the reporter on this story: Manja Segrt in Zagreb at msegrt@bloomberg.net

Last Updated: November 18, 2007 20:53 EST

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